Sesamoiditis The sesamoid bones are two bones under the big toe joint. They are embedded in two tendons and function as a pulley to help pull the big toe down toward the ground. Symptoms are usually insidious and involve pain under the big toe which usually worsens with weight-bearing activities. Because of their location, the sesamoid bones have a tremendous amount of force to distribute and are prone to injuries. Sesamoid injuries can be as simple as inflammation of the tendon and bone (sesamoiditis) or as complex as a fracture. Sometimes X-ray, MRI, Bone scan, or Ultrasound are used to differentiate between these injuries. A bunion is a structural bone deformity found in the area on the side of the foot behind the big toe. It often gives the impression that there has been an increase in bone growth; however, on X-ray, it is apparent that there is rarely an increase of bone. What actually occurs is a shifting of the big toe towards the smaller (lesser) toes and consequent shifting of the long bone behind the big toe, bending this joint at an angle. This bend or shift in the joint is similar to the bend of an elbow. What causes a bunion? Neuromas are a nerve inflammation condition that can be directly affected by the use of orthotics. When there is excessive pressure to the ball of the foot, either through splaying of the foot when it flattens, or excessive shock when a high arched foot slams on the ground, the nerve tissue that runs in between and under the long bones of the foot becomes injured. This injury results in a focused area of thickening of the tissue that surrounds the nerve, and can lead to pain in the ball of the foot, along with numbness, burning, and/or tingling of one or two toes. Pronation is the tendency of the foot to move either outward or inward during themovement phase. When the extent of inward or outward roll ishighly-exaggerated, it can cause arch support complications, and also shin splints and pain in the heels. Acupunctureis a viable means of treating foot and lower leg problems. The conceptbehind the needle and the certain areas they stimulate is to encourageelectric and blood flow to the affected parts. As a result, the regionis able to recover by itself, and the pain is alleviated. Medicalresearch conducted in 1996 demonstrated that acupuncture was able tosuccessfully return blood flow to the areas that had previouslysuffered from lack of blood flow. Metatarsal pads work such away that they spread your weight more evenly in the forefoot and thereby effectively reduce pressure at the balls of your foot. As they simply give extra cushioning for that ball of the feet, people with metatarsalgia can easily enjoy waking and going about their day-to-day routines without pain. People who have severe metatarsalgia may need to take into consideration other options such like surgery, but for mild to moderate cases they can be all that is required. Metatarsal pads have moreover benefits for other basketball of foot complaints such as sesamoiditis. Some problems can be a little difficult to diagnose accurately even with tests such as an x-ray. Stress fractures are a good example. These tiny cracks in the bone can be a source of considerable pain, yet an X-ray is not sensitive enough to pick up the small cracks, certainly not before the healing process is well underway. Even if a stress fracture is suspected, an x-ray is often required usually more to rule out other problems than to get concrete proof of the problem. This type of injury is often diagnosed by a process of elimination, a case history and a physical examination. Each of the two sesamoids found under the big toe joint have specific names. The sesamoid closer to the little toe side of the foot is termed the fibular sesamoid, and the sesamoid found on the big toe side of the foot is called the tibial sesamoid. If one of the oval shaped bones is in two pieces, it is termed bipartite and if the sesamoid is found in many pieces, it is termed a multipartite. Finally, the sesamoids are anchored to each other, also to the hallux and the first metatarsal by various ligaments and tendons.